The normal way to count "Unique Users" is to take large log files, sort by userid, dedup, and count. This requires a rather large amount of processing. Furthermore, the count derived cannot be rolled up. That is, daily counts cannot be added to get weekly counts -- some users will be counted multiple times.
So, the problem is to store the counts is such a way as to allow rolling up.
Let's think about what we can do with a hash of the userid. The hash could map to a bit in a bit string. A BIT_COUNT of the bit string would give the 1-bits, representing the number of users. But that bit string would have to be huge. What if we could use shorter bit strings? Then different userids would be folded into the same bit. Let's assume we can solve that.
Meanwhile, what about the rollup? The daily bit strings can be OR'd together to get a similar bit string for the week.
We have now figured out how to do the rollup, but have created another problem -- the counts are too low.
Inflating the BIT_COUNT
A sufficiently random hash (eg MD5) will fold userids into the same bits with a predictable frequency. We need to figure this out, and work backwards. That is, given that X percent of the bits are set, we need a formula that says approximately how many userids were used to get those bits.
I simulated the problem by generating random hashes and calculated the number of bits that would be set. Then, with the help of Eureqa software, I derived the formula:
Y = 0.5456*X + 0.6543*tan(1.39*X*X*X)
How good is it?
The forumla is reasonably precise. It is usually within 1% of the correct value; rarely off by 2%.
Of course, if virtually all the bits are set, the forumla can't be very precise. Hence, you need to plan to have the bit strings big enough to handle the expected number of Uniques. In practice, you can use less than 1 bit per Unique. This would be a huge space savings over trying to save all the userids.
Another suggestion... If you are rolling up over a big span of time (eg hourly -> monthly), the bit strings must all be the same length, and the monthly string must be big enough to handle the expected count. This is likely to lead to very sparse hourly bit strings. Hence, it may be prudent to compress the hourly stings.
This technique should work equally well in MySQL, MariaDB, and Percona. I did some preliminary code in September 2016; with suitable encouragement, I could continue with that. It is complicated by bit-wise operations being limited to BIGINT. However, with MySQL 8.0, the desired bit-wise operations can be applied to BLOB, greatly simplifying the code. So, I might continue with the pre-8.0 code or I might just work on the 8.0 code.
See also: HyperLogLog
Invented Nov, 2013; published Apr, 2014
Partition Maintenance (DROP+REORG) for time series (includes list of PARTITION uses)
Big DELETEs - how to optimize -- and other chunking advice, plus a use for PARTITIONing
Chunking lengthy DELETE/UPDATE/etc.
Data Warehouse techniques:
Overview Summary Tables High speed ingestion Bulk Normalization
Entity-Attribute-Value -- a common, poorly performing, design pattern (EAV); plus an alternative
5 methods for 'Find Nearest'
Find the nearest 10 pizza parlors -- efficient searching on Latitude + Longitude (another PARITION use)
Lat/Long representation choices
Z-Order 'find nearest'(under construction)
Pagination, not with OFFSET, LIMIT
Techniques on efficiently finding a random row (On beyond ORDER BY RAND())
GUID/UUID Performance (type 1 only)
IP Range Table Performance -- or other disjoint ranges
Rollup Unique User Counts
Alter of a Huge table -- Mostly obviated by 5.6
Latest 10 news articles -- how to optimize the schema and code for such
Build and execute a "Pivot" SELECT (showing rows as columns)
Find largest row for each group ("groupwise max")
Other Tips, Tuning, Debugging, Optimizations, etc...
Rick's RoTs (Rules of Thumb -- lots of tips)
Datatypes and building a good schema
Memory Allocation (caching, etc)
Character Set and Collation problem solver
Trouble with UTF-8 If you want case folding, but accent sensitivity, please file a request at http://bugs.mysql.com .
Python tips, PHP tips, other language tips
utf8 Collations utf8mb4 Collations on 8.0
Converting from MyISAM to InnoDB -- includes differences between them
Compound INDEXes plus other insights into the mysteries of INDEXing
Cookbook for Creating Indexes
Many-to-many mapping table Handler counts wp_postmeta UNION+OFFSET
MySQL Limits -- built-in hard limits
767-byte INDEX limit
Galera, tips on converting to (Percona XtraDB Cluster, MariaDB 10, or manually installed)
5.7's Query Rewrite -- perhaps 5.7's best perf gain, at least for this forum's users
Analyze MySQL Performance
Analyze VARIABLEs and GLOBAL STATUS Analyze SlowLog
My slides from conferences
Percona Live 4/2017 - Rick's RoTs (Rules of Thumb) - MySQL/MariaDB
Percona Live 4/2017 - Index Cookbook - MySQL/MariaDB
Percona Live 9/2015 - PARTITIONing - MySQL/MariaDB
(older ones upon request)
Contact me via LinkedIn; be sure to include a brief teaser in the Invite request: